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Konstantin Mironov
Konstantin Mironov

The ultimate resource for political and legal education in Serbia: Ustav i prava gradjana knjiga.pdf



Ustav i prava gradjana knjiga.pdf: A book about the constitutional and legal system of Serbia




Introduction




What is the book about?




The book Ustav i prava gradjana knjiga.pdf (Constitution and citizens' rights book.pdf) is a textbook for high school students in Serbia that covers the basic concepts and principles of the constitutional and legal system of the Republic of Serbia. The book aims to provide students with a political and legal education that prepares them for entering the political life of their country, as well as to develop their critical thinking and civic awareness.




Ustav I Prava Gradjana Knjiga.pdf



Who wrote the book and when?




The book was written by a team of authors from different fields of law, such as constitutional law, administrative law, civil law, criminal law, international law, etc. The book was published in 2010 by Zavod za udzbenike (Institute for textbooks), a public institution that produces educational materials for schools in Serbia. The book is based on the Constitution of Serbia from 2006, as well as on other relevant laws and regulations.


Why is the book important and relevant?




The book is important and relevant because it offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the constitutional and legal system of Serbia, which has undergone significant changes in the past decades. The book explains the historical background and the current context of the constitutional development of Serbia, as well as its position in the international community. The book also addresses some of the most pressing issues and challenges that Serbia faces today, such as decentralization, human rights protection, European integration, etc.


Main content




The concept and essence of law




The book starts by defining the concept and essence of law as a complex and multifaceted social phenomenon that consists of various elements, such as legal rules, legal profession, legal consciousness, legal science, etc. The book also distinguishes between different types and sources of law, such as positive law, natural law, customary law, statutory law, case law, etc. The book emphasizes that law is not a static but a dynamic phenomenon that changes according to the needs and values of society.


The state, law and legal order




The book then explains the relationship between the state, law and legal order. The book defines the state as a political organization of a certain territory and population that has sovereignty, legitimacy and monopoly over violence. The book also defines law as a set of rules that regulate social relations within a state. The book also defines legal order as a system of norms that ensure stability, security and justice in a state. The book argues that law is both a product and a condition of the state, as well as a means and an end of the legal order.


The constitution and the legal state




The book then focuses on the constitution and the legal state. The book defines the constitution as a supreme legal act that establishes the basic principles, values and goals of a state. The book also defines the legal state as a state that respects and guarantees human rights and freedoms, limits its power by law, separates its powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches, ensures democratic participation of citizens in decision-making processes, protects minorities and vulnerable groups, etc. The book argues that Serbia is a constitutional and legal state that follows these criteria.


The distribution of competences between the state, autonomous provinces and local self-government




The book then analyzes the distribution of competences between the state, autonomous provinces and local self-government in Serbia. The book explains that Serbia is a unitary but decentralized state that consists of two autonomous provinces (Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija) and various units of local self-government (municipalities, cities, etc.). The book also explains that each level of government has its own competences in matters that can be effectively managed within its territory. The book also explains that some matters are shared or delegated between different levels of government according to laws or agreements.


A table showing some examples of competences at different levels of government




Level Competences --- --- State Defense, foreign affairs, monetary policy, customs system Autonomous provinces Education, culture, health care Local self-government Public utilities, urban planning The rights and duties of citizens




The book then discusses the rights and duties of citizens in Serbia. The book enumerates various types of rights that citizens have according to the constitution or international treaties, such as civil rights (e.g., freedom of expression), political rights (e.g., right to vote), economic rights (e.g., right to property), social rights (e.g., right to education), cultural rights (e.g., right to use one's language), etc. The book also enumerates various types of duties that citizens have according to laws or moral norms, such as paying taxes, obeying laws, serving in military or civilian service, protecting environment, etc.


A list showing some examples of rights and duties at different levels




- Rights - Civil rights - Freedom of expression - Freedom of religion - Freedom of assembly - Political rights - Right to vote - Right to be elected - Right to petition - Economic rights - Right to property - Right to work - Right to social security - Social rights - Right to education - Right to health care - Right to family life - Cultural rights - Right to use one's language - Right to preserve one's identity - Right to participate in cultural life - Duties - Paying taxes - Obeying laws - Serving in military or civilian service - Protecting environment The organization and functioning of state authorities




The book then describes the organization and functioning of state authorities in Serbia. The book explains that Serbia has a parliamentary system where executive power is exercised by the government led by the prime minister who is elected by the national assembly which is composed of representatives chosen by the people through direct elections. The book also explains that legislative power is exercised by the national assembly which passes laws and controls the government through various mechanisms such as questions, interpellations, motions of no confidence, etc. The book also explains that judicial power is exercised by the courts which adjudicate disputes and apply the laws according to the constitution and other sources of law.


A diagram showing the structure and interaction of state authorities





+----------------+ +----------------+ People --------> National Assembly +----------------+ +----------------+ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ +----------------+ +----------------+ +----------------+ Government Courts Minister +----------------+ +----------------+ +----------------+


The judicial system and protection of rights




The book then examines the judicial system and protection The judicial system and protection of rights




The book then examines the judicial system and protection of rights in Serbia. The book explains that the judicial system consists of different types and levels of courts, such as basic courts, higher courts, appellate courts, commercial courts, administrative courts, etc. The book also explains that the highest court in Serbia is the Supreme Court of Cassation, which ensures the uniform application of law and the equality of citizens. The book also explains that there are special courts for specific matters, such as the Constitutional Court, which decides on the constitutionality and legality of laws and acts, and the High Judicial Council, which appoints and dismisses judges.


The book also discusses the protection of rights in Serbia. The book explains that citizens can protect their rights through various means, such as legal remedies, appeals, complaints, petitions, etc. The book also explains that citizens can seek the protection of their rights from various institutions, such as the Ombudsman, the Commissioner for Information of Public Importance and Personal Data Protection, the Commissioner for Protection of Equality, etc. The book also explains that citizens can appeal to international bodies and courts, such as the European Court of Human Rights, if they exhaust all domestic remedies.


The constitutional review and amendments




The book then explores the constitutional review and amendments in Serbia. The book explains that the constitutional review is a process of checking whether laws and acts are in accordance with the constitution. The book also explains that the constitutional review can be abstract or concrete, depending on whether it is initiated by authorized subjects or by individuals who claim that their rights have been violated. The book also explains that the constitutional review can be preventive or repressive, depending on whether it is performed before or after a law or act enters into force.


The book also explains that the constitutional amendments are changes to the constitution that require a special procedure and a qualified majority. The book also explains that the constitutional amendments can be proposed by at least one third of deputies in the national assembly, by the president of Serbia, by the government or by at least 150 000 voters. The book also explains that the constitutional amendments must be adopted by a two-thirds majority in the national assembly and confirmed by a referendum.


Conclusion




Summary of the main points




In conclusion, the book Ustav i prava gradjana knjiga.pdf is a valuable source of information and education for high school students in Serbia who want to learn about the constitutional and legal system of their country. The book covers various topics and aspects of law and politics in Serbia, such as:


- The concept and essence of law - The state, law and legal order - The constitution and the legal state - The distribution of competences between the state, autonomous provinces and local self-government - The rights and duties of citizens - The organization and functioning of state authorities - The judicial system and protection of rights - The constitutional review and amendments Evaluation of the book's strengths and weaknesses




The book has many strengths and some weaknesses. Some of the strengths are:


- It is comprehensive and up-to-date - It is clear and concise - It is well-structured and organized - It is based on reliable sources and references - It uses examples and illustrations to explain complex concepts - It encourages critical thinking and civic awareness Some of the weaknesses are:


- It is sometimes too technical or abstract - It is sometimes too biased or subjective - It is sometimes too repetitive or redundant - It does not include enough exercises or activities to test students' knowledge - It does not include enough perspectives or opinions from different stakeholders or groups Recommendations for further reading and learning




For those who want to learn more about the constitutional and legal system of Serbia, here are some recommendations for further reading and learning:


- Ustav Republike Srbije (Constitution of Serbia) - The official text of the constitution that defines the basic principles, values and goals of Serbia. - Pravni leksikon (Legal lexicon) - A dictionary that explains various legal terms and concepts in a simple way. - Pravo i politika u Srbiji (Law and politics in Serbia) - A collection of essays that analyze different aspects of law and politics in Serbia from different perspectives. - Srbija u Evropi (Serbia in Europe) - A book that examines Serbia's relations with Europe and its prospects for European integration. - Sudjenje za ljudska prava (Trial for human rights) - A website that provides information and resources on human rights cases in Serbia and abroad.


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